To what extent was the First World War a catalyst for change in the Middle East - Essay Example Political The First World War shaped the Middle East by having its unity disbanded in a brutal manner that paved the way for the modern Middle East known to man in the present day. As such, the First World War set the stage for a series of never before witnessed events that have been in play to the current times in that there have been revolutions and reforms that have seen the Middle East become a widely divided location especially in terms of modernity and development (Iran Review 2012). Traditionally and conventionally, the borders of the Middle East were not clearly defined and two parties, mainly the chieftains, controlled them and the British coupled with the French. This was prior to the First World War, in which case the nation was largely united under a common religion and a form of belief in a single ethnicity. This was in spite of the presence of factions that were divided on religious and ethnic grounds because of the death of the Islamic prophet. In this case, there were significant revolutions in Iran and neighbouring lands of modern times where there were riots against the Iranian monarchy led by merchants in an attempt to cut back on the powers of the absolute monarchy that arbitrarily shifted its powers back and forth over the people. Prior to the First World War, the leaders who served administrative duties ceased to function due to lack of political support by the people. It was after the First World War that the monarchy received a substantial blow, which saw the monarchy weaken to the extent of having a mark on Iranian history. The culminations of the First World War set the stage for future confrontations against the governments of the time by causing massive disunity between the monarchy and the people to the extent that after the constitutional revolution, the Islamic revolution took place. Without the presence of the First World War and significant weakening of the monarchy, the Islamic revolution of 1978-1979 would not have taken place and the urban middle would not have participated to bring about change. In addition, the First World War saw the Middle East thrown into a state of turmoil or chaos following the constitutional revolution. This allowed the people to have greater control over the happenings in Iran, which was significant for the overthrowing of the then government. This was done in the early years that followed the world war through a military coup that saw Zia thrown out of power in 1923 and saw the establishment of new government after deposing the then monarchy. This set the stage for modern day Middle East, as we know it due to the rapid shift in power and the impact that other coups occurring in Europe had. This also had plenty to do with the crowning of Qajar Shah in 1921 and invasion by the Ottoman Empire, British and Russians. It is these events, of the first war, that also saw significant disunity in Iran and the open view that the government had no power whatsoever. As a result, of the First World War, the stage was set for drastic change that lasts to date in that there have been significant uprisings against governments in an attempt to get improved governance and proper leadership, as well as reforms. Moreover, the First World War saw the development of numerous changes in modern times as seen in the case of the Hussein-McMahon correspondence that shows the great influence the First World War had in the Middle East. The above-mentioned correspondence saw Hussein seek
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